İZTUZU ECOLOGICAL DESIGN COMPETITION PROJECT FOR DEKAMER - 2nd HONORABLE MENTION PRIZE
Architecture | Landscape | Competition
2019, Mugla TR
total design area : 3.500 m²
' It is a form that is natural, not given by external molds and pressures, shaped as it develops, and becomes perfect when the development process is completed. In architecture, the word organic means 'holistic entity'; According to the organic approach with its use in architecture, what the whole relation with the part is with the whole. Therefore, the main meaning of the organism is what is existing as a whole. ''
Iztuzu Beach, a small dune system with a length of about 4.5 km on a narrow strip that separates the wide Dalyan wetland system from the sea, is a rare ecosystem whole. Iztuzu is an important natural landscape area where the balance of protection and use should be carefully adjusted due to the fact that Caretta caretta is one of the rare breeding areas, it is located at the intersection of different ecosystems and it has cultural landscape elements.
The areas where biological diversity and productivity are most intense have been exposed to excessive use of human beings throughout history. In order for these areas to be used more rationally by mankind, comprehensive agreements and a number of ecological principles are required between the relevant parties. For this reason, threats to natural values should be identified and the measures to be taken should be set out within the framework of a plan. Landscape and architectural design decisions regarding Iztuzu cannot be sufficient for the protection and development of the region's ecosystem and biodiversity. It is necessary to develop new principles for the region in terms of cultural, social, economic and ecological aspects and to develop a participatory 'Integrative System Design' approach that will keep these principles together.
Holistic System Design
Holistic System Design is formed by designing the scenarios that will be produced in the field together with four different principles (social, economic, cultural and ecological) and blending this design with sustainable factors. Iztuzu Beach is a natural landscape area that is aimed to protect ecologically with its rich biodiversity and natural values in sensitive B zone where three different ecosystems intersect and to be shaped with design suggestions that will make its ecosystem sustainable. In this sense, the decisions taken in the whole design are based on a model proposal that will set an example for the region in general overlapping the fauna and flora.
The established principles apply to all dimensions of sustainability. Integrated System Design is the cornerstone for creating flexible systems and sustainable designs. In this sense, the cooperation of managers, visitors, volunteers and the local community is important. This approach enables the introduction of transparent and participatory practices at a level that anyone interested can actively engage in. The aim is to develop an inclusive design by running all the principles of the holistic system, as well as to feed each other. With the presence of Dekamer, the area gains considerable potential, but it is aimed to include new support functions that will feed the Dekamer and match the region's identity. In this sense, ecological data has been examined and it is aimed to construct structural and vegetative landscape design decisions, which are the first link of developing a field-specific design, in an 'eco-village' line that will establish a strong bond with other main principles (economic, social, cultural) and enable ecotourism. This approach is an important link in an ongoing process, not the result of a particular design. Undoubtedly, it is not designed by external developers only, only the ground is created. The floor created by the designer is redesigned in a process by the communities formed by the participants and it becomes user oriented. Design decisions have been geared towards throwing seeds of the life and learning center, which is a continuous exploration for a renewable future.
Dekamer-Köy I Sustainable Living Center
Dekamer is located on a sloping land on the Iztuzu beach, one of the most important breeding areas of Caretta carettas, at the intersection of the forest and dune regions. Dekamer, which was established for the research, protection and treatment of sea turtles, also has an important visitor potential. Accelerating its activities with the support of volunteers in the breeding season during the summer months, Dekamer is a visiting area where people of different typology come together in the day-night axis of Iztuzu beach, which controls the change of human-sea turtle use. Dekamer does not get the necessary attention in the current conditions due to transportation opportunities, institutional resources, awareness and functional deficiencies. At the same time, volunteers do not come to the field with the closing of the breeding season with October and Dekamer spends the winter months idle. However, due to its location and mission, volunteers, local and foreign tourists, the community of people of the region have a strong position in terms of the idea of coming together for a social platform and a common upper ecological goal. At this point, the idea of 'Dekamer-köy Sustainable Living Center' sprouts. The backbone of the project is to blend both the natural and cultural values of the region with a new social platform to be created and to spread this union to all seasons and become an ecological attraction.Agricultural activity is very important in Köyceğiz and Ortaca in the Special Environmental Protection Area. Citrus is also one of the agricultural products exported in the region. Apart from that, fruit and vegetable growing is also done. Although agricultural culture and traditional agricultural awareness are high, biological struggle remains incomplete due to the fact that organic agriculture or good agriculture cannot be achieved collectively in the region. Using superficial farming methods, excessive fertilizer and pesticide use in irrigation creates serious pollution. It is inevitable to support ecotourism models planned for the region with agricultural practices. The contribution of agricultural activities to fauna biodiversity in the region is also important. Over time, the population of various bird and reptile species has decreased with the destruction of agricultural areas, and biodiversity in the region has been damaged. In order to construct a rational plane where traditional and new meet, ecological agriculture is positioned to work together with Dekamer in an earthly fertile area between forest texture and dune area, as a basis for ecotourism. Citrus gardens and vegetable cultivation, which are important for Dalyan in terms of ecological suitability and economic value, are included in the agricultural parcel. By sharing qualified agricultural practices and innovative solutions, honoring deep-rooted traditional knowledge and local cultures, Dekamer-village aims to bring together visitors and people of different typology in a social platform plane as a social platform. In addition, it sees it as a duty to direct the soil to understand and touch it against a growing future without seeing the fruit in its branch. It aims to combine the smart use of modern technology and resources with traditional heritage and wisdom. It is thought that the activities to be carried out in this center will contribute to the global awareness of global poverty and environmental destruction by creating awareness on a regional scale. Dekamer-village works like an organism. The areas with different functions (visitor center, rehabilitation and research center, ecological agriculture area) increase themselves in relation to each other both in terms of the use of natural resources and waste recycling, while performing their duties. In addition to being a self-sufficient and productive formation, it contributes to flora and fauna biodiversity and performs its role in the system as a self-contained ecological part in the big picture.
The 'platform', which greets three different ecosystems, extends from the woodland to the lake wetland and the sea axis. Existing trees are the main element that shapes the platform. It penetrates around the trees and natural landscape with perceptual and structural continuity and continues to extend at ± 0.00 (land of +6.00 land), which is the entrance elevation towards the marine ecosystem on the one hand and the lake ecosystem on the other. The natural landscape continues to flow under the platform with the slope. The platform connects the masses of different functions with the circulation scenario, while at the same time separating the transition area from the visitor center and the rehabilitation center functions, it defines a transition axis between the forest and the sea, with reference to the existing pathway in the memory. Platform extension also establishes an integrated relationship with the field of ecological agriculture. A top cover that will define this platform as space surrounds the masses as a permeable shell over the platform. On the other hand, the platform aims to be used as multi-purpose as well as being the backbone of movements such as circulation, assembly and dispersal. Temporary seasonal exhibition space, outdoor trainings, social uses for volunteers are some of them.
Material / Facade
Platform carrier elements and units are designed with wooden material that contributes to energy efficiency and has a negative carbon footprint. Carrier building elements are laminated wood. In addition, due to solar control, the facade is covered with linear wooden modules of different sizes and these modules are integrated into the units in line with the usage scenarios of the spaces. Sheep wool with high fire resistance, which does not lose its function in humid and hot areas, has been used as thermal insulation. By using heat-controlled double-layer low-e glass in the transparent parts of the facade, it is envisaged to reduce the operational carbon dioxide amount and energy usage by eliminating the heating-cooling loads. Considering the environmental conditions of the building in the region with an average annual temperature; The thermal performance of the bark is increased by both high thermal efficiency of wood and increasing wall stratification. Some of the modules are designed to be sliding so that daylight control is at the user's discretion at different times of the day. In this region, which is exposed to high temperatures in the summer, and in the winters in the winter, it is aimed to increase the visual and climatic comfort by covering the spatial circulation with a wooden cover and creating semi-open areas with inner-outer sections.
The use of pre-produced timber in structural design decisions ensures that the structure can be dismantled, reused, reused and, if necessary, destroyed without harming the environment. It is important to build the building with a low carbon footprint while respecting the environmental sustainability principles and to be recycled when it completes its lifetime.
Sustainable Living Center welcomes the visitors on the way to Dekamer. There is the Visitor Center, which works together with the area where ecological farming is carried out, followed by the transition axis at the intersection of the dune-forest area, and finally the Rehabilitation Center and offices. Units shaped in line with the needs program are located in line with the transition relations needed.
The transition area within the platform divides the visitor center and the rehabilitation center into two. The presentation room, the tank area and the museum, which are the units of the visitor center, are shaped by a certain circulation system that the visitors will follow. Unlike other masses, the tank area contacts the ground at -2.85 level due to the load it carries. Along with this settlement, the platform is also used as a mezzanine floor at +0.15 level, and is used as a turtle drop and observation area for 4.50m tanks. In addition, the transition from the tank area to the level of -2.85 was given to the ecological agriculture area and these two important areas are connected to each other. The permeability of the scenarios continuing from -2.85 level to the agricultural area and dirt road from the visitor center to the lake and the sea at the lower level through the platform - amp - path axis is taken into consideration.
In the area where there is a rehabilitation center and office areas, the spaces of the offices are designed in more isolated areas. Units belonging to the rehabilitation center are positioned in a single circular plan to allow passage through the inner courtyard.
Energy efficiency and Waste Management
Collection pipes from wet areas in the project are located under the platform. Pipes from wet areas reach the tanks in the Sustainable Living Center. Sewage water from siphons is transferred to the plant systems via a septic tank. This infrastructure is called 'intestines of the system'. The organic wastes collected from the kitchen unit are recycled to the nature as fertilizer in order to increase soil fertility with the hot compost method. Solar energy was preferred as a renewable energy source and solar energy panels were located on the south-north axis on the office mass in order to meet the annual needs of the building.
Herbal Landscape Decisions
Vegetable landscape design decisions in general are on the rehabilitation of the soil. In this sense, the planted regions are dune areas, lake wetland, dune-forest transition area and areas where ecological agriculture is carried out. Due to the damage caused by the tourism activities, serious damages have occurred in the dune hills and lake reeds, which has damaged biodiversity. For this reason, it is aimed to rehabilitate the destroyed areas by using endemic plant species. In the field of ecological agriculture, citrus orchards (vegetable) and vegetable cultivation are included, which are an agricultural and cultural value.
In addition to the development of the agricultural culture and the strengthening of the social dimension, ecological agriculture has a significant contribution to the fauna diversity of the region. It is expected that bird species such as Podicipedidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Ardeidae and Anatidae, which have a decreasing population in the region with fruits, can be observed and followed again. Besides, biodiversity of many reptile and invertebrate species is expected to increase.
Transportation and Daily Space Editing
The existing road from Dalyan to Iztuzu Beach was preserved and a bicycle road line was left within this axis. The parking area, which interferes with the dune area, has been withdrawn and a separate axle has been left for tour buses and minibuses, and for other vehicles and disabled car parks. Bicycle parking is reserved in the area following the cycle path axis. Units belonging to the daily area are designed in a compact way using wooden materials. The beach axis is designed behind the nesting belt, approximately 40 meters behind the area where the sea meets sand.
There are piers where boats can berth in the beach area located to the north of Iztuzu Beach. However, since the coastline is approximately 4.5 km and there is no other means of transportation, visitors coming with tour boats cannot reach the Dekamer area by sea. For this reason, a scaffold design on the south west coast where the dune area ends and the rock slopes can be approached is planned.